Confucian scholars, however, are given an equal if less obvious power. Powerful clans should be limited by the central government, so the gap between rich and poor would be decreased. On the basis of these principles he created a ritual that should seek and stop the rain, and he attempted to interpret historical and contemporary anomalies and catastro… Dong Zhongshu by Wei, Zhengtong, 1986, Dong da tu shu gong si, Zong jing xiao San min shu ju edition, in Chinese - 880-03 Chu ban. Dragon Jade Pendant of the Han Dynasty, Unearthed From Tomb of King of Chu — Xuzhou Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying). As a philosopher, Dong merged the Confucian and Yinyang schools of thought. Therefore, Emperor Wudi of Han, in the year 134 BC, changed the official ideology from Taoism to Confucianism, under the suggestion of Dong Zhongshu. This event has passed. In the year 134 BC, when Emperor Wudi of Han commanded to collect advanced governance ideologies, Dong Zhongshu was recommended by many officials. What is more, Sui explicitly invoked the authority of Dong Zhongshu in making his claim. He is traditionally associated with the promotion of Confucianism as the official ideology of the Chinese imperial state. Dong Zhongshu (179 BC — 104 BC), or Dong Zi, developed ancient Confucianism, based on theories of other philosophical schools and knowledge of Yin-Yang and Five Elements. Dong Zhongshu (179-104 v.Chr.) Debris (Xi Ping Shi Jing) of Official Confucianism Classics Carved on Stone (175 — 183) — National Museum of China (Photo by Ayelie). Details. Public group? Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Confucianism: Dong Zhongshu: The Confucian visionary. Confucianism and It’s Remarkable Philosophers, Confucius the Great Educator and Founder of Confucianism, Controversial Confucianism Philosopher Xun Zi and His Famous Legalism Students, Zhu Xi the Remarkable Reformer of Confucianism, An Almighty General and the Founder of School of Mind — Wang Yangming, Brief, Comprehensive Introduction to Chinese History, Famous, Influential Figures in the History of China, Schools and History of Ancient Chinese Philosophy, History, Belief, and Essence of Taoism Ideology, Chinese Astrology — Three Enclosures, Four Symbols, Twenty-eight Lunar Mansions, Chivalrous, Mysterious Mohism and It’s Advanced Technology, History and Development of Legalism in Chinese History, Fun Facts about Chinese Culture and History, Dong Zhongshu — A Remarkable Contributor of Confucianism in Chinese Culture, Presenting the Reformed Confucianism to the Emperor. Most significantly, he transformed Confucianism by com- bining traditional moral teachings with metaphysical beliefs. In keeping with his earlier publications, Loewe's Dong Zhongshu, a “Confucian” Heritage and the Chunqiu Fanlu is remarkably comprehensive, offering a broad‐ranging treatment of the various issues surrounding Dong's life and work. As a chief minister to the emperor Wu (c. 140–87) of the Han dynasty, Dong was chiefly responsible for the dismissal of all non-Confucian scholars from government. China Review International: Vol. 20. 2, 2012 Michael Loewe. Intellectual developments of the Western Han dynasty (202 BCE 9 CE) have been studied hitherto on the assumptions that a system described as Confucianism acquired paramount importance and that Dong Zhongshu (ca. Six Arts (Liu Yi) — Etiquette (Li), Music (Yue), Archery (She), Equestrianism (Yu), Calligraphy (Shu), and Mathematics (Shu). He was an expert in the Gongyang commentary of the Confucian classic … It is they who interpret the portents and thus exercise a check on the policies of the ruler. He apparently favored heaven worship over the tradition of cults celebrating the five elements. Also, Dong Zhongshu conforms with Confucian beliefs that a ruler and subject must be in a beneficial relationship, with the subject and ruler both respecting each other and working as a united whole (Doc #5). While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Therefore, the government should establish a national college that only teaches the Six Arts of Confucianism, and then select officials among excellent students of this school. He reformed Confucianism, by absorbing ideas from other philosophical schools, into an ideology that suited the development of the Han Dynasty . But in his memorials, Dong never actually mentions the Five Forces. Natural phenomena are reflections of humans, especially the monarch’s, behaviors; that is how heaven shows the will and judgment. Dong Zhongshu was one of the most important intellectual figures of the early imperial era. Dong Zhongshu then was assigned to some other political positions, but he resigned a few years later. Dong felt that Confucius not only recorded events in such a way as to exercise judgment upon them but also laid down the rules to be used in governing future dynasties. Mandate: Dong Zhongshu’s Rhetoric of the Way (Dao) Yichun Liu and Xiaoye You Studies of Confucian rhetoric in the West have largely focused on Confucian figures in pre-imperial China.1 The reasons for the en-during interest in this historical period, we suggest, are mainly two-fold. The Records of the Grand Historian (Shiji) written by Sima Qian around 100 bce contains a biography of Dong Zhongshu, the earliest and most reliable source about his life and thought. That includes a centralized political system, a nationwide and dominant ideology, and well-established laws and moral standards. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Dong-Zhongshu, ChinaKnowledge.de - Biography of Dong Zhongshu. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. When he was 30, he was already a famous, knowledgeable intellectual who had attracted many students. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. During his retired period, the emperor frequently consulted for his opinions on important events and showed him great respect and trust. Online event. The emperor is heaven’s ambassador on earth, and natural catastrophes such as floods and droughts are heaven’s way of warning the emperor to examine his personal conduct and correct his mistakes. Dong Zhongshu (179-104 v.Chr.) He apparently favored heaven worship over the tradition of cults celebrating the five elements. Dong Zhongshu, Wade-Giles romanization Tung Chung-shu, (born c. 179, Guangchuan, China—died c. 104 bce, China), scholar instrumental in establishing Confucianism in 136 bce as the state cult of China and as the basis of official political philosophy—a position it was to hold for 2,000 years. Confucianism was first set up by Confucius (551–479BC) and later was developed by philosophers, including Mencius, Dong Zhongshu, Wang Yangming and others. Reading Philosophy. Portrait of Great Philosopher Dong Zhongshu. Dong Zhongshu (179 BC — 104 BC), respected as Dong Zi or Dong Fuzi, was an accomplished philosopher, educator, and politician. UofT Libraries is getting a new library services platform in January 2021. abdicate in obedience to Heaven. Dong Zhongshu (179 BC — 104 BC), respected as Dong Zi or Dong Fuzi, was an accomplished philosopher, educator, and politician. philosopher emperor jing of han When he was a doctor, he taught "RAM spring and Autumn". Tian, (Chinese: “heaven” or “sky”) in indigenous Chinese religion, the supreme power reigning...…. 198 to ca. [1] Ultimately banished to the Chancellery of … Dong Zhongshu (Chinese: 董仲舒; Wade–Giles: Tung Chung-shu; 179 – 104 BC) was a Han Dynasty Chinese scholar. 107 BCE) had been responsible for formulating its principles. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Updates? Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Dong Zhongshu. Dong Zhongshu (Chinese: 董仲舒; Wade–Giles: Tung Chung-shu; 179–104 BC) was a Han Dynasty Chinese philosopher, politician, and writer. and Jonathan Edwards differed widely in their religious beliefs and practices, but few people would deny that all three were Christians. Dong Zhongshu is generally remembered as the author of a detailed system of correspondences in which everything was correlated to one of the five fundamental forces, so that everything could be shown to be interrelated in an orderly and comprehensible manner. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2011. xii, 369 pp. Dong Zhongshu, a 'Confucian' Heritage and the Chunqiu Fanlu Michael Loewe Intellectual developments of the Western Han dynasty (202 BCE 9 CE) have been studied hitherto on the assumptions that a system described as Confucianism acquired paramount importance and that Dong Zhongshu (ca. Dong’s reinterpretation of Confucianism Hij was afkomstig uit Guangchuan in de hedendaagse provincie Hebei . Etiquette (Li), Music (Yue), Archery (She), Equestrianism (Yu), Calligraphy (Shu), and Mathematics (Shu). Learn more about the change. He is traditionally associated with the promotion of Confucianism as … First, the hundreds of schools of thought during the Spring and Born into a noble and rich family, Dong Zhongshu read many books and received the best education. Read reviews from world’s largest community for readers. Great Unity is the foundation of the stability of a huge empire. He reformed Confucianism, by absorbing ideas from other philosophical schools, into an ideology that suited the development of the Han Dynasty. Wednesday, January 20, 2021 8:00 PM to 9:00 PM EST. As an excellent master, many of his students became influential and accomplished people. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Have we perhaps missed some- Hence, Dong Zhongshu had been teaching in the imperial academy of the Han Dynasty, and assigned to be prime minister of some kings. Dong Zhongshu’s Cyclical Theory of History • This cyclical philosophy of history = tremendous influence in the Han dynasty (206 B.C. His new ideology that included Grand Unification, Divine Right of Kings and Interactions Between Heaven and Mankind, was accepted and then promoted as the dominant ideology by his … Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). 198 to ca. He must prevent disturbances by caring for and educating his people. Ultimately banished to the Chancellery of Weifang by his adversary Gongsun Hong, Gongsun effectively promoted Do… In Dong’s system the ruler has the central position—undoubtedly one of the major reasons that Confucianism was accepted by Emperor Wu. Their crown in the end change after seeing those signs, they would lose their crown in the principles within... Of Chu — Xuzhou Museum ( Photo by dong zhongshu beliefs ) accepted by emperor Wu Museum... 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